Quality of Life. A few words between Bob and Fleur as we arrive and set up to shoot.
Robert Taylor was one of the first to fund Doug's work. Doug reflects: "What saved my program from extinction then was arrival of an out-of-the-blue support offer from Bob Taylor who at that time was a psychologist working at NASA Headquarters (then in Washington, D.C.) I had visited him months before, leaving copies of the Framework (the 1962 paper: Augmenting Human Intellect) report and our proposal, and I had been unaware that meanwhile he had been seeking funds and a contracting channel to provide some support. The combined ARPA and NASA support enabled us to equip ourselves and begin developing Version 1 of what evolved into the NLS and AUGMENT systems."
Bob went on to initiate the ARPANET, which would become the Internet: In 1966 Bob took on the role of director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office, formerly headed by J. C. R. Licklieder. Upon arrival, he began to notice a lot of duplicate work being done at ARPA funded institutions. Furthermore, these institutions were always asking for newer and better (more expensive) computers. Realizing the enormous cost associated with this Bob decided that ARPA should link these institutions together.
Bob's first choice to head up the project was Larry Roberts. While Roberts didn't want to take the position initially, Bob leveraged the funding that ARPA provided to Robert's lab at MIT in order to persuade him.
As if that wasn't enough, only eleven months after the launch of the ARPANET Bob left in September 1970 to create the computer science lab at Xerox Corp.'s Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox PARC).
A few notes from Bob on this: "About Roberts and Taylor: their focus was the ARPANET. While it is absolutely fair to say that Larry led this project, a lot of credit has to go to BBN for designing and implementing the IMP - Bob Kahn led the design of the IMP - he was the senior architect. Dave Walden and many others worked with him. Severo Ornstein did the hardware design. Frank Heart managed the engineering team though Bob was from a different department so was not directly under Frank's management. Larry and Bob don't distinguish ARPANET and Internet but Bob Kahn and I feel that's incorrect. The ARPANET was a homogeneous network of inhomogeneous computers (and operating systems) and proved the value of packet switching. The Internet allowed the interconnection of arbitrary numbers of heterogeneous packet networks and created the end to end protocols needed to make that work. Internet would not exist were it not for ARPANET's pioneering trailblazing. Steve Crocker led the development of the ARPANET host protocol: NCP. I worked on that along with Jon Postel and Bob Braden at UCLA. TCP/IP took advantage of lessons learned with NCP and the forces that shaped the Internet: different capabilities of the networks that made up the Internet."
Additional comment from Bob on the different versions of the history of the net, courtesy of Dave Farbers IP list:
From: Bob Taylor Date: October 6, 2004 2:45:03 AM EDT To: David Farber
Hello Dave. I agree with you that Rick Adams was "right to the point". Here is some more ARPAnet history background.
In February of 1966 I initiated the ARPAnet project. I was Director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) from late '65 to late '69. There were only two people involved in the decision to launch the ARPAnet: my boss, the Director of ARPA Charles Herzfeld, and me.
From 1962 to 1970, beginning with J.C.R. Licklider, Ivan Sutherland, and then me, IPTO funded several of the first projects devoted to the creation of interactive computing -- then referred to as time-sharing. In '64 - '65, I witnessed that within each local site when users were first connected by a time-sharing system, a community of people with common interests began to discover one another and interact through the medium of the computer. I was struck by the fact that this was a wonderfully new and powerful phenomenon.
The next obvious step was to connect those sites with an interactive network. To me, computing was about communication, not arithmetic. Hence the ARPAnet.
This theme is elaborated in a paper Lick and I wrote in 1968 entitled, "The Computer as a Communications Device". Google can find it for you. On the last couple of pages there is a scenario that is reminiscent of today's Internet.
Numerous untruths have been disseminated about events surrounding the origins of the ARPAnet. Here are some facts:
The most significant role in actually building the ARPAnet was played by Frank Heart and his Bolt, Beranek & Newman team: Severo Ornstein, Will Crowther, Bob Barker, Bernie Cosell, Dave Walden, and Bob Kahn.
I believe these two claims are false but they are recorded as facts on the web sites of the National Academy of Engineering and the Computer History Museum. The worst property of self-promotion is that it takes credit away from the people who actually made the contributions. Roberts, Kahn, and Kleinrock have, however, made other important contributions. These can only be tarnished by extravagant claims.
Packet switching is an important part of modern networking, but it is not the only key piece. The multiplicity of the applications and the openness of the standards also played critical roles in ARPAnet development, as did Steve Crocker's initiation and management of the RFC process.
I believe the first internet was created at Xerox PARC, circa '75, when we connected, via PUP, the Ethernet with the ARPAnet. PUP (PARC Universal Protocol) was instrumental later in defining TCP (ask Metcalfe or Shoch, they were there).
For the internet to grow, it also needed a networked personal computer, a graphical user interface with WYSIWYG properties, modern word processing, and desktop publishing. These, along with the Ethernet, all came out of my lab at Xerox PARC in the '70s, and were commercialized over the next 20 years by Adobe, Apple, Cisco, Microsoft, Novell, Sun and other companies that were necessary to the development of the Internet.
The ARPAnet was not an internet. An internet is a connection between two or more computer networks. The ARPAnet, with help from thousands of people, slowly evolved into the Internet. Without the ARPAnet, the Internet would have been a much longer time in coming.