Quality of Life. A few words between Bob and Fleur as we arrive and set up to shoot.
. Were they outsiders when they changed our world?
Computers before Doug. Really, really short intro. Bob describes how different computing was before it became interactive.
Computers before Doug, long version. Bob elaborates on how computers were thought of as arithmetic devices until Doug & Lick and the gang thought of them as communications and augmentation systems.
The 68 demo. Some insights from Bob's perspective on Doug's big demo in 1968.
After the demo. What happened? What was the effect?
Meeting Doug Bob discusses meeting Doug.
Thinking big. Bob says that Robert once accused him of not thinking big enough.
Speed of innovation Moore's Law is one thing, but what about the pace of innovation?
Doug today. Some thoughts of Doug today.
The future, and the internet. Fleur asks him about the future.
Doug's vision
. And some things on Doug's legacy.
Garden & Views
. Fleur enjoys the view from his garden.
Lan-Wan, Internet
. How they connect.
. Bob speaks about Doug's system.
Creators. He shows Fleur a poster of the creators of the Internet and discusses some of those in the picture.
Jokes in the garden. A casual scene in the garden.
Walk through the house and garden.
I walk in the front door to find them and end up circling nearly the whole house before I find them on the other side of a fence.



Robert Taylor was one of the first to fund Doug's work. Doug reflects: "What saved my program from extinction then was arrival of an out-of-the-blue support offer from Bob Taylor who at that time was a psychologist working at NASA Headquarters (then in Washington, D.C.) I had visited him months before, leaving copies of the Framework (the 1962 paper: Augmenting Human Intellect) report and our proposal, and I had been unaware that meanwhile he had been seeking funds and a contracting channel to provide some support. The combined ARPA and NASA support enabled us to equip ourselves and begin developing Version 1 of what evolved into the NLS and AUGMENT systems."

Bob went on to initiate the ARPANET, which would become the Internet: In 1966 Bob took on the role of director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office, formerly headed by J. C. R. Licklieder. Upon arrival, he began to notice a lot of duplicate work being done at ARPA funded institutions. Furthermore, these institutions were always asking for newer and better (more expensive) computers. Realizing the enormous cost associated with this Bob decided that ARPA should link these institutions together.

Bob's first choice to head up the project was Larry Roberts. While Roberts didn't want to take the position initially, Bob leveraged the funding that ARPA provided to Robert's lab at MIT in order to persuade him.

As if that wasn't enough, only eleven months after the launch of the ARPANET Bob left in September 1970 to create the computer science lab at Xerox Corp.'s Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox PARC). 

A few notes from Bob on this: "About Roberts and Taylor: their focus was the ARPANET. While it is absolutely fair to say that Larry led this project, a lot of credit has to go to BBN for designing and implementing the IMP - Bob Kahn led the design of the IMP - he was the senior architect. Dave Walden and many others worked with him. Severo Ornstein did the hardware design. Frank Heart managed the engineering team though Bob was from a different department so was not directly under Frank's management. Larry and Bob don't distinguish ARPANET and Internet but Bob Kahn and I feel that's incorrect. The ARPANET was a homogeneous network of inhomogeneous computers (and operating systems) and proved the value of packet switching. The Internet allowed the interconnection of arbitrary numbers of heterogeneous packet networks and created the end to end protocols needed to make that work. Internet would not exist were it not for ARPANET's pioneering trailblazing. Steve Crocker led the development of the ARPANET host protocol: NCP. I worked on that along with Jon Postel and Bob Braden at UCLA. TCP/IP took advantage of lessons learned with NCP and the forces that shaped the Internet: different capabilities of the networks that made up the Internet."

Additional comment from Bob on the different versions of the history of the net, courtesy of Dave Farbers IP list:

From: Bob Taylor Date: October 6, 2004 2:45:03 AM EDT To: David Farber
Subject: [IP] more on 35th Anniversary of the Internet (well the start of the Arpanet anyway djf)

Hello Dave.  I agree with you that Rick Adams was "right to the point".  Here is some more ARPAnet history background.

In February of 1966 I initiated the ARPAnet project.  I was Director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) from late '65 to late '69.  There were only two people involved in the decision to launch the ARPAnet:  my boss, the Director of ARPA Charles Herzfeld, and me.

From 1962 to 1970, beginning with J.C.R. Licklider, Ivan Sutherland, and then me, IPTO funded several of the first projects devoted to the creation of interactive computing -- then referred to as time-sharing.  In '64 - '65, I witnessed that within each local site when users were first connected by a time-sharing system, a community of people with common interests began to discover one another and interact through the medium of the computer.  I was struck by the fact that this was a wonderfully new and powerful phenomenon. 

The next obvious step was to connect those sites with an interactive network.  To me, computing was about communication, not arithmetic.  Hence the ARPAnet.

This theme is elaborated in a paper Lick and I wrote in 1968 entitled, "The Computer as a Communications Device".  Google can find it for you.  On the last couple of pages there is a scenario that is reminiscent of today's Internet.

Numerous untruths have been disseminated about events surrounding the origins of the ARPAnet.  Here are some facts:
          The creation of the ARPAnet was not motivated by considerations of war.  The ARPAnet was created to enable folks with common interests to connect to one another through interactive computing even when widely separated by geography.
          The singularly most important contribution to the architectural design of the ARPAnet/Internet came from Wesley Clark:  the interface message processor (IMP).  Wes is the designer of the LINC which was arguably the first personal computer.  Wes' ARPAnet concept ensured the critically valuable distributed architecture of the ARPAnet.  Prior to Wes' contribution, Larry Roberts, whom I hired in Dec '66 to be ARPAnet's program manager, was considering a single, central ARPAnet control computer at a military base in Nebraska.  Fortunately, Wes quickly disabused Roberts of this notion.

The most significant role in actually building the ARPAnet was played by Frank Heart and his Bolt, Beranek & Newman team:  Severo Ornstein, Will Crowther, Bob Barker, Bernie Cosell, Dave Walden, and Bob Kahn. 

    Two suspicious claims relating to the ARPAnet were an important part of the case for awarding the 2001 Draper Prize to Kahn and Kleinrock. 
     1. Kahn has claimed far and wide to be "responsible for the systems          
         design of the ARPAnet" while a member of the BB&N team.  Since
         no other team member agrees, I doubt the validity of this claim. 
    2.  Roberts and Kleinrock (close friends since college) began to claim
         in 1995, more than 30 years after the fact, that Kleinrock invented  
         packet switching.  Most of us believe that Donald Davies in England
         and Paul Baran in the U.S. independently invented packet switching in
         the early '60s.

I believe these two claims are false but they are recorded as facts on the web sites of the National Academy of Engineering and the Computer History Museum.  The worst property of self-promotion is that it takes credit away from the people who actually made the contributions.  Roberts, Kahn, and Kleinrock have, however, made other important contributions.  These can only be tarnished by extravagant claims.

    Packet switching is an important part of modern networking, but it is not the only key piece.  The multiplicity of the applications and the openness of the standards also played critical roles in ARPAnet development, as did Steve Crocker's initiation and management of the RFC process.

          I believe the first internet was created at Xerox PARC, circa '75, when we connected, via PUP, the Ethernet with the ARPAnet.  PUP (PARC Universal Protocol) was instrumental later in defining TCP (ask Metcalfe or Shoch, they were there). 

          For the internet to grow, it also needed a networked personal computer, a graphical user interface with WYSIWYG properties, modern word processing, and desktop publishing.  These, along with the Ethernet, all came out of my lab at Xerox PARC in the '70s, and were commercialized over the next 20 years by Adobe, Apple, Cisco, Microsoft, Novell, Sun and other companies that were necessary to the development of the Internet.

        The ARPAnet was not an internet.  An internet is a connection between two or more computer networks.  The ARPAnet, with help from thousands of people, slowly evolved into the Internet.  Without the ARPAnet, the Internet would have been a much longer time in coming.