The Antitrust Department of the Department of Justice of the US Government sues Western Electric and AT&T for restraint of trade. Western Electric was a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T and that Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL or Bell Labs) was jointly owned by Western Electric and AT&T (50% each). The consent decree required that AT&T license use of all its patents at nominal fees, which laid the groundwork for subsequent licensing of UNIX to universities.