Paul Baran at RAND publishes: "On Distributed Communications Networks" Packet-switching networks; no single outage point.

P. Baran. On distributed communications networks . IEEE Transactions on Communications, pages 1-9, 1964.


Our job is to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. We do that in many ways. Sometimes, we develop new knowledge to inform decisionmakers without suggesting any specific course of action. Often, we go further by spelling out the range of available options and by analyzing their relative advantages and disadvantages. On many other occasions, we find the analysis so compelling that we advance specific policy recommendations. In all cases, we serve the public interest by widely disseminating our research findings.

RAND (a contraction of the term research and development) is the first organization to be called a "think tank." We earned this distinction soon after we were created in 1946 by our original client, the U.S. Air Force (then the Army Air Forces). Some of our early work involved aircraft, rockets, and satellites. In the 1960s we even helped develop the technology you're using to view this web site.